The Amendments

(continuation of the Constitution project)

I am straight copy-pasting these.  I have already started reading through them but am not through yet.

http://constitutionus.com/

Article [I] (Amendment 1 – Freedom of expression and religion) 13

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

Article [II] (Amendment 2 – Bearing Arms)

A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.

Article [III] (Amendment 3 – Quartering Soldiers)

No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

Article [IV] (Amendment 4 – Search and Seizure)

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

Article [V] (Amendment 5 – Rights of Persons)

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

Article [VI] (Amendment 6 – Rights of Accused in Criminal Prosecutions)

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.

Article [VII] (Amendment 7 – Civil Trials)

In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

Article [VIII] (Amendment 8 – Further Guarantees in Criminal Cases)

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

Article [IX] (Amendment 9 – Unenumerated Rights)

The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

Article [X] (Amendment 10 – Reserved Powers)

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

 

Attest,
John Beckley, Clerk of the House of Representatives.
Sam. A. Otis  Secretary of the Senate.
Frederick Augustus Muhlenberg  Speaker of the House of Representatives.
John Adams, Vice-President of the United States, and President of the Senate.

(end of the Bill of Rights)

[Article XI] (Amendment 11 – Suits Against States)

The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.   ratified #11   affects 10

[Article XII] (Amendment 12 – Election of President)

The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate;—The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted;—The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President.14  —The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.  ratified #12   affects 8

Article XIII (Amendment 13 – Slavery and Involuntary Servitude)

Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdictionaffects 11

Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.   ratified #13

Article XIV (Amendment 14 – Rights Guaranteed: Privileges and Immunities of Citizenship, Due Process, and Equal Protection)

1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

2: Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-oneyears of age,15  and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.   affects 2

3: No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.

4: The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.

5: The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.   ratified #14

Article XV (Amendment 15 – Rights of Citizens to Vote)

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.   ratified #15

Article XVI (Amendment 16 – Income Tax)

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionmentamong the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.   ratified #16    affects 2

[Article XVII] (Amendment 17 – Popular Election of Senators)

1: The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for sixyears; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures. affects 3

2: When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies:  Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct. affects 4

3: This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.   ratified #17

Article [XVIII] (Amendment 18 – Prohibition of Intoxicating Liquors)16

1: After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.

2: The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

3: This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.   ratified #18

Article [XIX] (Amendment 19 – Women’s Suffrage Rights)

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. affects 15

Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.   ratified #19

Article [XX] (Amendment 20 – Terms of President, Vice President, Members of Congress: Presidential Vacancy)

1: The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.   affects 5

2: The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.   affects 5

3: If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified.   affects 9    affects 14

4: The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them.   affects 9

5: Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratification of this article.

6: This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission.   ratified #20

Article [XXI] (Amendment 21 – Repeal of Eighteenth Amendment)

1: The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed. affects 16

2: The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.

3: This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.   ratified #21

Amendment XXII (Amendment 22 – Presidential Tenure)

1: No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of the President more than once. But this article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President when this article was proposed by the Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the term within which this article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term.

2: This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures ofthree-fourths of the several states within seven years from the date of its submission to the states by the Congress.    ratified #22

Amendment XXIII (Amendment 23 – Presidential Electors for the District of Columbia)

1: The District constituting the seat of government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct: A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a state, but in no event more than the least populous state; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the states, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a state; and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment.

2: The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.   ratified #23

Amendment XXIV (Amendment 24 – Abolition of the Poll Tax Qualification in Federal Elections)

1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.   ratified #24

Amendment XXV  affects 9 (Amendment 25 – Presidential Vacancy, Disability, and Inability)

1: In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.

2: Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.

3: Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.

4: Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.

Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.   ratified #25

Amendment XXVI (Amendment 26 – Reduction of Voting Age Qualification)

1: The right of citizens of the United States, who are 18 years of age or older, to vote, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state on account of age. affects 15

2: The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.   ratified #26

Amendment XXVII (Amendment 27 – Congressional Pay Limitation)

No law varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives shall take effect until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.   ratified #27

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The Constitution Project

The WHY

I had always thought that I should read the Constitution.  Sure, I have read bits and pieces here and there and memorized sections for school tests, but I have never really sat down and paid attention.

The best way I could figure to motivate and hold myself accountable was to type it out.

I started typing it on Twitter and made it to Article II.  That is where this post picks up. Most of the rest of this is just an exercise in making sure I read something I took for granted.  I am not correcting every mistake I make while typing, because it does not really matter with this exercise, and it will also keep me from being tempted by copy/paste :).  My goal is to finish….

Article II

The executive Power shall be vested in a POTUS of America.  He shall hold his Office during the Term of 4 years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows:

Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an office of Trust or Profit under the US, shall be appointed an Elector.

The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for 2 Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and the number of Votes for each; which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the US, directed to the President of the Senate.  The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificated, and the Votes shall then be counted.  The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an Equal number of votes. the the HOR shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the list the said House shall in the Manner chuse the President.  But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by the States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; A quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from 2/3 of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice.  In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest number of votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President.  But if there should remain 2 or more who have equal votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by ballot the Vice President.

The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the day on which they shall give their Votes; which day shall be the same throughout the US.

No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the US, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of the President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained the age of 35yrs , and been 14yrs a Resident within the US.

In case of the Removal if the President from office, or of his death, resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on the VP, and the Congress may by Law provide for the case of removal. Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and the VP, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.

The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his services, a Compensation, which shall neither be increased or diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the US, or any of them.

Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation–“I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of POTUS, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”

Section 2

The President Shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the US, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual service of the US; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principle Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons and offences against the US, except in cases of Impeachment.

He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided 2/3 of the Senators present concur; and he shall  nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public ministers and Consuls, Judges of the Supreme Court, and all other Officers of the US, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by law; but the Congress may by law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.

The President shall have Power to fill up all vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.

Section 3

He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and Recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may; on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them , and in Case of disagreement between them, with Respect to the time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public ministers’ he shall take Care that the laws be faithfully executed, and shall commission all the Officers of the US.

Section 4

The President, VP, and all civil Officers of the US, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.

Article III

Section 1

The judicial Power of the US, shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish.  The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behaviour, and shall, at stated times, receive for their Services, a Compensation, which shall not be determined during their Continuance in Office.

Section 2

The Judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under the Constitution, the Laws of the US, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority; —to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, and other public ministries and Consuls–to all cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction;–to Controversies to which the US shall be party;–to Controversies between 2 or more states;–between states and citizens of another State;-between citizens of different States;, –between citizens of the same state claiming lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens, or Subjects.

In all Cases Affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction.  In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.

The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed in any State, the Trial shall be such Place or Places as the Congress may be Law have directed.

Section 3

Treason against the US, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort.  No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless the Testimony of 2 Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.

The Congress shall have power to declare punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attained.

Article IV

Section 1

Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceeding of every other State. and the Congress may by general Laws Prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.

Section 2

The Citizens of each state with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the state having jurisdiction of the Crime.

Section 3

New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction of 2 or more Sates, or Parts of States, without the consent of the Legislature of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.

The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other property belonging to the US; and nothing in this constitutions shall be so construed as to Prejudice and Claims of the US, or of any particular State.

Section 4

The US shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic violence.

Article V

The Congress, whenever 2/3 of both Houses should deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of 2/3 of the several states, shall call a Convention for proposing amendments. which, in either case, shall be valid to all intent and purposes, as a part of the Constitution, when ratified by the Legislature of 3/4 of the several States, or by Conventions in 3/4 thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be Proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the year 1808 shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.

Article VI

All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the US under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.

This Constitution, and the Laws of the US which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the united States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, and Thing in the constitution or Laws of any States to the Contrary notwithstanding

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the US and of the Several Sates, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or Public Trust under the US.

Article VII

The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same.

09/17/1787

 

I have not decided if I am going to type or just read aloud the amendments.

Here is some additional information from the site that was used most of the time:

http://constitutionus.com/

 

Note 1: This text of the Constitution follows the engrossed copy signed by Gen. Washington and the deputies from 12 States. The arabic numerals preceding the paragraphs designate Clauses, and were not printed (but are referred to) in the original and have no reference to footnotes that appear as small superior figures (superscripts). ratification

Note 2: The part of Article 1 Section 2 Clause 3 relating to the mode of apportionment of representatives among the several States has been affected by Amendment XIV Section 2, and as to taxes on incomes without apportionment by Amendment XVI.

Note 3: Article 1 Section 3 Clause 1 has been affected by Amendment XVII Section 1.

Note 4: Article 1 Section 3 Clause 2 has been affected by Amendment XVII Section 2.

Note 5: Article 1 Section 4 Clause 2 has been affected by Amendment XX.

Note 6: Article 1 Section 6 Clause 1 has been affected by Amendment XXVII.

Note 7: Article 1 Section 9 Clause 4 has been affected by Amendment XVI.

Note 8: Article 2 Section 1 Clause 3 has been superseded by Amendment XII.

Note 9: Article 2 Section 1 Clause 6 has been affected by Amendment XX and Amendment XXV.

Note 10: Article 3 Section 2 Clause 1 has been affected by Amendment XI.

Note 11: Article 4 Section 2 Clause 3 has been affected by Amendment XIII Section 1.

Note 12: The first ten amendments to the Constitution of the United States are known as the Bill of Rights

Note 13: The Bill of Rights only had ten of the twelve articles ratified and these were then renumbered. Of the others only the 13th, 14th, 15th, and 16th articles of amendment had numbers assigned to them at the time of ratification.

Note 14: This sentence of Amendment XII has been superseded by Amendment XX Section 3.

Note 15: Article XIV Section 2 is modified by Amendment XIX Section 1 and Amendment XXVI Section 1.

Note 16: Amendment XVIII repealed by Amendment XXI Section 1.

Bridge to Heaven

Bridge to Heaven

I have been playing with some photos from a recent trip to St. George Island off Florida’s panhandle.

May I present to you, the bridges to heaven and hell…

 

Her Now heavens bridge-publish

 

 

Her Now Hells bridge

 

PSA: Please be very careful about the time of year and where you are when using any white lights near the beach.  Baby turtles can get confused by artificial lights and lose their way.

Playing with Filters

I knew my schedule was taking me back near the bridge from the last post.  I wanted a crack at it with more filters and a tripod.  The neutral density filter that I used before came with 2 friends that I layered on top before loading the camera in my bag.  I did not have much time, because, well, I was still “working.”  I parked, grabbed by bag and my tripod and hustled back to the bridge.  

On the way out, it was apparent that a few storms had been by since my last visit.  The water was higher.  There was more debris.  It was a little creepier.

The photos all came out with a red tint. Maybe it is because I did pretty much pick the filters by size and price only.  Luckily, tint can be largely corrected with the magic of LIGHTROOM.  I was able to take longer exposures before light blew out the image.

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the other side of the bridge

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No tint correction

 

Where the Black Water Rolls

Where the Black Water Rolls

The first 2 views on the page were taken with a new toy I am playing with.  It is basically a low cost neutral density filter. I got the idea from Richard Bernabe.  He does some fantastic work and his blog has some great tips and information.

The insects were fussy today.  I just could not get them in focus.  The blue guy had 2 buddies but they were so fast I basically just popped it in sports mode and hoped automatic fire could catch them.

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This is the song that kept coming to mind as I walked on the path surrounded by black water. Warning-Bluegrass sound.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Floating Spider

SPider study

Last Friday I had the chance to start down a trail that I have never been down before.  Shortly before I turned around, I looked up to inspect the sky that had begun to grumble.  This aerial acrobat was suspended about 30 feet overhead.

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It reminded me of this little guy that I caught closer to eye level a few years back.  

Building a web

Hmmmm, at least cousins.

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